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Forensic Science .

FLUORINE
FLUORINE

Fluorine is a chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists at standard conditions as a highly toxic, pale yellow diatomic gas. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive, as it reacts with all other elements, except for argon, neon, and helium. Symbol: F Atomic number: 9 Atomic mass: 18.998403 u Electron configuration: [He] 2s22p5 Melting point: -219.6 °C Boiling point: -188.1 °C

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OXYGEN
OXYGEN

Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group in the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. Symbol: O Atomic mass: 15.999 u Atomic number: 8 Electron configuration: [He] 2s²2p⁴ Electrons per shell: 2, 6 Discoverers: Joseph Priestley, Antoine Lavoisier, Carl Wilhelm Scheele.

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RHENIUM
RHENIUM

Rhenium is a chemical element with the symbol Re and atomic number 75. It is a silvery-gray, heavy, third-row transition metal in group 7 of the periodic table. With an estimated average concentration of 1 part per billion, rhenium is one of the rarest elements in the Earth's crust. Symbol: Re Electron configuration: [Xe] 4f145d56s2 Atomic number: 75 Atomic mass: 186.207 u Melting point: 3,185 °C Discoverers: Ida Noddack, Walter Noddack, Otto Berg

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NITROGEN
NITROGEN

Nitrogen is the chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Symbol: N Atomic mass: 14.0067 u Atomic number: 7 Electron configuration: [He] 2s22p3 Boiling point: -195.8 °C Electrons per shell: 2,5

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SILICON
SILICON

Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a hard, brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, and is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table: carbon is above it; and germanium, tin, lead, and flerovium are below it. Symbol: Si Atomic number: 14 Electron configuration: [Ne] 3s²3p² Atomic mass: 28.0855 u Melting point: 1,414 °C Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 4

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CARBON
CARBON

Carbon is a chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth's crust. Symbol: C Atomic mass: 12.0107 u Atomic number: 6 Electron configuration: [He] 2s22p2 Electrons per shell: 2, 4 Electronegativity: 2.55

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SULFUR
SULFUR

Sulfur is a chemical element with the symbol S and atomic number 16. It is abundant, multivalent and nonmetallic. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S₈. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow, crystalline solid at room temperature. Symbol: S Atomic mass: 32.065 u Atomic number: 16 Electron configuration: [Ne] 3s²3p⁴ Electrons per shell: 2,8,6 Melting point: 115.2 °C

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CARBON
CARBON

Carbon is a chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth's crust. Symbol: C Atomic mass: 12.0107 u Atomic number: 6 Electron configuration: [He] 2s22p2 Electrons per shell: 2, 4 Electronegativity: 2.55

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IODINE
IODINE

Iodine is a chemical element with the symbol I and atomic number 53. The heaviest of the stable halogens, it exists as a semi-lustrous, non-metallic solid at standard conditions that melts to form a deep violet liquid at 114 degrees Celsius, and boils to a violet gas at 184 degrees Celsius. Symbol: I Atomic mass: 126.90447 u Atomic number: 53 Electron configuration: [Kr] 4d105s25p5 Melting point: 113.7 °C Boiling point: 184.3 °C

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ERBIUM
ERBIUM

Erbium is a chemical element with the symbol Er and atomic number 68. A silvery-white solid metal when artificially isolated, natural erbium is always found in chemical combination with other elements. Symbol: Er Electron configuration: [Xe] 4f126s2 Atomic number: 68 Atomic mass: 167.259 u Period: period 6 Atomic radius: empirical: 176 pm

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NITROGEN
NITROGEN

Nitrogen is the chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Symbol: N Atomic mass: 14.0067 u Atomic number: 7 Electron configuration: [He] 2s22p3 Boiling point: -195.8 °C Electrons per shell: 2,5

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CERIUM
CERIUM

Cerium is a chemical element with the symbol Ce and atomic number 58. Cerium is a soft, ductile, and silvery-white metal that tarnishes when exposed to air, and it is soft enough to be cut with a steel kitchen knife. Symbol: Ce Electron configuration: [Xe] 4f¹5d¹6s² Atomic number: 58 Atomic mass: 140.116 u Discovered: 1803 Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 19, 9, 2

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F

 FLUORINE

According to the World Health Organization fluorine is listed as one of the essential elements for optimal growth, health maintenance and overall development. Depending on the amount ingested, fluorine can be beneficial or harmful if not administered correctly. The reason behind fluorine being considered toxic and become a cumulative poison is rooted in its pharmacodynamic properties. This statement is based on some studies conducted by the National Institute of Cancer, in the US, revealing that fluorine intake is associated directly with an increased risk of cancer, in particular, bone cancer in children (by 5%). Fluorine has also been detected as a highly active chemical element that is prone to inhibit many enzymes, being significantly mutagenic and causing mutations at DNA levels.

The risks associated with overdose of fluorine are acute intoxication that presents itself through such symptoms as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, seizures. Others include osteoporosis caused by daily consumption of water that contains high levels of fluorine, multiway skeletal ingestion, chronic intoxication.

 

Recommended reading:

Crauciuuc, D., Costescu, M., Scripcaru, C., Simona, D. Radu, C. C., Girlescu, N. (2018). Forensic aspects of fluorine poisoning. Revista de Chimie – Bucharest – Original Edition – 69 (12): 3710-3713.

 

Kumar, A.(2009). Fatality due to sodium fluoride ingestion—suicide or accident?, Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal, 42:1, 69-74.

 

Randall, B.B.,Fraser, B.J. Peanut butter and fatal fluoride poisoning. Am. J. For. Med. Pathol. 1994; 15(1): 40–43.

 

Related forensic science area:

Forensic toxicology

 

Recommended courses:

Forensic Toxicology Awareness – bespoke options – MORE

The field of forensic science draws from a spectrum of diverse scientific branches, such as chemistry, biology and physics. Aiming to provide the best possible results in assessment, identification, and evaluation of evidence. Discover some scientific insights ...